Myanmar continues to face significant humanitarian challenges related to the recent security crisis in the Rakhine and Kachin States, such as mass displacement and lack of access to basic services. Furthermore, it faces challenges related to the long-standing conflict in various parts of the country and is also highly prone to natural disasters.
Dramatic events escalating in August and September 2017 in Rakhine State have led to a mass displacement of the Rohingya people. More than 733,000 people fled to refugee camps in neighbouring Bangladesh; however, those who stayed behind continue to live under dire circumstances and are desperately in need of humanitarian assistance. Since September 2017, People in Need has assisted people who are affected by this conflict and who have been displaced from their homes.
The armed conflict in Kachin State intensified in April 2018, resulting in the displacement of several thousand people. PIN, with the help of local partners, provides various forms of assistance relating to education, water, sanitation, hygiene and shelter.
Recent monsoon rains in July 2018 caused dramatic flooding in Bago Region and in Kayin and Mon States of, displacing more than 150,000 people. PIN distributed food kits in some of the most affected and remote villages in Kayin. In addition, PIN launched a program rehabilitating agriculture livelihoods and schools.
Supporting internally displaced people in Rakhine
In Rakhine state People in Need has been working since 2012. Originally, PIN focused mainly on supporting civil societies and the dialogue between the members of ethnic and religious groups as well as helping people after devastating floods.
The humanitarian crisis in Rakhine worsened after attacks on police posts in August 2017 and the subsequent security operations by Government forces led to mass displacement. The violence caused hundreds of casualties and resulted in the burning of villages. Over 850,000 people felt unsafe and their fear drove them out of their homes.
The high number of refugees and IDPs (internally displaced people) reflects the severity of the situation in the northern region of Rakhine state. Therefore, People in Need decided to help the people who had to leave their homes and lost their property. Nearly 200,000 people literally remain trapped in villages without access to local market, humanitarian aid and medical care. For that reason, since September 2017, People in Need has been working in northern Rakhine. Through local partner organizations, People in Need organized the distribution of food and hygiene kits, and helped families to improve shelters. So far, we have helped thousands of families in Rakhine and we seek to continue helping others.
Emergency Flood Response in the Rakhine state
PIN, in cooperation with a local partner, distributed equipment and furniture (including tables, chairs, black boards, bookshelves) to 20 schools that were affected by Cyclone Komen and assisted the construction of a temporary learning space in a village in Northern Rakhine. Given the complexity of relations between different ethnic groups, all humanitarian aid takes place under strict conditions and PIN promotes an approach based on neutrality and inclusiveness.
Supporting internally displaced persons
Animosity between different ethnic groups in Kachin State, which had been bubbling under the surface for decades again flared into conflict in 2011. Apart from hundreds of dead on both sides, civil war has also caused the displacement of another 50 thousand Kachins who live near the border with China. While some of them fled to areas on the Chinese side of the border, others remain nearer their devastated homes or have ended up in overcrowded refugee camps in Myanmar. These people have lost not only their homes, but also their source of livelihood and their children (who account for 40% of displaced persons) face an uncertain future, unable to continue in their schooling.
In cooperation with their partners, People in Need has provided shelters and the essentials for life to over 5,000 internally displaced persons. It has focused aid at refugees behind the Chinese border and in camps within territory under the control of the Kachins, while always concentrating on the most disadvantaged groups of refugees: mothers, the elderly and children. In addition to providing immediate humanitarian aid, we also arranged interim education for children of school age. In cooperation with our partners, we set up six schools in the vicinity of the camp and saw to it that the schoolchildren were able to attend. These projects were financed mainly by the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the Czech Republic and by the People in Need Club of Friends.
Humanitarian Aid in Kachin State
In cooperation with our partner organizations, PIN provided food and nutritious food supplements, assisted with the construction of temporary schools and shelters, improved access to drinking water as well as support for alternative livelihoods.
Our help targeted primarily the most disadvantaged groups of IDPs: pregnant and breastfeeding mothers, the elderly and children.
Cross-border Humanitarian Aid
In the vast areas along the south-eastern and eastern frontiers of Myanmar, on top of the armed conflict, the local population has struggled against malaria and malnutrition due to that fact that virtually no system of state-run health care exists. Virtually the only providers of healthcare are local community organizations, often coordinated from exile in Thailand. Some of these organizations have built stationary clinics within Myanmar, while others have helped in areas where it is not possible to work in this way due to security concerns by providing medical care via mobile health teams.
People in Need has worked systematically with these organizations. Since 2010, it supported several groups providing healthcare to more than 300,000 inhabitants of these border regions who have been constantly endangered by the unstable situation in the area. Apart from that, People in Need supported stationary clinics in stabilized areas as well – several dozens of which were provided with medicines and other medical materials (primarily antimalarial drugs). PIN also supported a construction of a health clinic in Shan State, which primarily serves internally displaced people.
Cyclone Nargis which hit Myanmar in May 2008 took the lives of more than 140,000 people. An additional 100,000 found themselves suddenly without shelter, lost their livelihoods and remained with no access to basic needs such as food or water. Altogether around 2.5 million people were severely affected.
People in Need took immediate action one week after the cyclone. In the first phase, People in Need concentrated on providing emergency aid in response to urgent humanitarian needs. Through local partners, PIN distributed food, drinking water, purification tablets, clothing and tarpaulins for construction of temporary shelters. Later PIN focused on restarting livelihoods of fishermen, farmers and small retailers.
Population of the rural areas in the afflicted regions received skills trainings and were provided with boats, nets and farm animals. In cooperation with local partners, sources of drinking water, shelters and basic infrastructure such as piers, roads, culverts and schools were reconstructed.
Parallel to the reconstruction process, a psycho-social support program was launched acknowledging that its timely provision is the key to preventing trauma and long-term psychological disorders in areas stricken by catastrophe.