Ethiopia: Education and practical abilities

Ethiopia: Education and practical abilities

Education in Ethiopia is at a very low level, with more than half of its adult population being illiterate. Half of Ethiopians under 18 years old and only 57% of men and 53% of women complete primary school, the main reasons being a lack of schools, unqualified teachers, a poor theoretical curriculum and lack of teaching facilities and materials.

Education is the key to the country's development, and therefore People in Need helps to improve access to education for Ethiopians by building schools and introducing modern teaching methods into primary and secondary schools.

During the very successful campaign Let’s Build a School in Africa, which started in 2004, the Czech public, companies and institutions contributed to the construction of 17 schools in areas with the least developed infrastructure. Locations are selected according to various criteria – such as urgency (number of children of primary school age and capacity of the schools in the area, their distance from settlements, and so on), cooperation between local authorities, and the community's willingness to participate in the preparatory work.

Besides the actual process of school construction, our education programme is dedicated to training teachers to become proficient in using quality teaching methods with a direct approach to education. The great benefit to the Czech public of Let’s Build a School in Africa is an increase in awareness of the problems of the developing world.

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Ongoing aidorPast aid programmes

Impoving access to the employment opportunities in Addis Abeba

Impoving access to the employment opportunities in Addis Abeba

Ethiopia is currently one of the fastest growing economies in the world. There is, therefore, a rapid creation of new job opportunities, for which skilled workers are needed. Together with our partners (Concern, VIS and CHADET) our aim is to improve the technical and life skills of especially young people and women in Addis Ababa and facilitate their access to the employment opportunities. This further contributes to improving their living conditions and reducing the likelihood of migration. The project also pursues to strengthening TVET colleges in Addis Ababa, enhancing Public Employment Service to support the unemployed people and support existing and new public-private partnerships in the construction, metalwork and leather sector. Particular emphasis is placed on creating partnerships between secondary vocational schools and the private sector, because the graduates often do not have any practical experience in their field, which creates an obstacle for finding a decent job. The TVET colleges as well as co-operating companies will also be equipped with facilities for the practical training of students and trainees.
Supporting inclusive education

Supporting inclusive education

Only a small minority of children with disabilities or otherwise marginalized children in Ethiopia attend and complete elementary school. Due to the non-existent system of inclusive education and a general taboo in the society of this topic, it is very difficult to integrate children with disabilities into school and then into society. In Ethiopia there is a lack of specialized teachers, rigid curriculum, lack of knowledge of educators, and future teachers, insufficient funding of inclusive education and inaccessibility and low equipment of school buildings) the majority of children with disabilities or otherwise marginalized children are excluded from the education system.

Therefore, we are focusing on contributing to increased social and economic inclusion of all, irrespective of age, sex, disability, race, ethnicity, origin, religion or economic or other status in Ethiopia. The aim is to increase equitable access, participation and achievement of all children in inclusive quality primary education in Gedeo and Hadiya zones. Therefore, we train current and future teachers on the principles of inclusive education, link schools with itinerant teachers, support parents of children with disabilities to send them to school, and equip primary schools with aids for children with disabilities.

Enhancing Employability of Young People in Leather Sector via Quality Improvement of Vocational Education

Enhancing Employability of Young People in Leather Sector via Quality Improvement of Vocational Education

This project aims at increasing employment of young men and women in the leather production sector in Ethiopia via improving the quality of vocational education and direct support during the process of seeking employment or establishing their own businesses. The young unemployed people will be provided with long-term and short-term trainings, consultations and support to acquire work habits and other practical skills. The successful graduates will be then assisted on their way to establish their own businesses or to find employment in one of the leather production businesses.
         
The project supports two educational institutions in Wolayta and Gedeo Zones (Soddo Polytechnic College a Dilla TVET College). The curriculums of these two colleges will be adjusted and the teachers will be provided with trainings focusing on teaching people with disabilities. They can also make use of experience sharing sessions on this subject. Thanks to the project funds, classrooms of the two educational institutions will be equipped with the new machineries to provide quality education complying with Ethiopian standards and meeting needs of people with disabilities.

The support of micro and small enterprises aims to enable the entrepreneurs to gain necessary skills and experience and to increase their chances to access a loan offered by local micro financing institutions, for example. Networking between the successful businesses and the educational institutions as well as the micro enterprises is essential as it enables the students and the small entrepreneurs to gain access to materials and placement opportunities.
Improved Management of Water Schemes

Improved Management of Water Schemes

In previous years, People in Need in the Alaba District implemented a project ensuring sustainable access to drinking water, by repairing non-functioning sources (deep wells) and building new resources. Since the most serious obstacle towards repairing potential malfunctions in this area is particularly lengthy or broken communication between water operators and water offices, an electronic fault record system has been already introduced in the area within ​​the previous project. Officials, thanks to simple software, receive malware information instantly through SMS messages sent to water operators and therefore they can immediately react to shortcomings.

The project has so far strengthened the capacity of the TVET schools, Woreda Water Office and local water associations, addressed the problem of high fluoride level in the underground water (building of defluorization stations) and also focused on the inventory of water sources, thus to create a technical database on individual water sources.

Currently, our goal is to extend knowledge and capacities to four additional TVET schools in Sidama, Wolaita, Hadyia and Gamogofa.

Improvement of Vocational Education in the Field of Water Scheme Management

Improvement of Vocational Education in the Field of Water Scheme Management

The existing system for water scheme technicians at Hawassa Polytechnic College is of limited-quality which negatively affects water scheme management in the area.

The project therefore aims at improving the quality of vocational education at this college, especially the Electro-mechanic course. Renovation and modernization of the classrooms as well as new equipment for training and provided trainings for trainers improve quality of education at the Hawassa Polytechnic College. The project also focuses on experience sharing between the college and the technical staff of the water sector at district/woreda levels.

Next to the inclusion of practical experience into the curriculum, the emphasis is placed on addressing skill gaps of the technicians of water schemes at both the woreda and community levels.
Let’s Build a School in Mokonisa

Let’s Build a School in Mokonisa

PIN has been working on projects aiming at education and especially at its quality since 2003. The organization helps to improve access to education to Ethiopian people by building schools (as part of a broader project Let´s Build a School in Africa), and introducing modern teaching methods at the primary and secondary level of education (in the framework of Modern Teaching Methods to Quality Education project).

In 2015, construction of a new school with 4 classrooms started in the village of Mokonisa. During single-shift operation the school will be attended by 200 pupils and 6 teachers. Given the large number of school children in the selected area, the double-shift operation will be run in the school, enabling education to 400 pupils.
    
Next to the construction of four classes and the offices, the project also aims at building latrines and water catchment systems. The school has also been equipped with 100 school desks and 200 chairs, boards, furniture for office rooms and school supplies. Moreover, teachers have been provided with trainings on the modern teaching methods.
Battle with Current Water and Food Shortages

Battle with Current Water and Food Shortages

Due to this year´s late Belg rainy season Alaba area suffered a long period of drought. Delayed sowing led to delayed harvest which resulted in food shortage. The already bad situation was worsened by factors such as insufficient capacity of functional water schemes or higher vulnerability of some of the communities which had lost their homes together with food reserves and seeds to be sow this year during floods in 2014. Moreover, this year´s extreme drought contributed to fires in the area which led to further losses of previous crops and property.

Next to increasing the distance and time for supplying drinking water (which is usually done at the expense of family or school, in case of schoolchildren), lack of water also negatively affects hygiene habits which are then the cause of diarrheal diseases. These factors, together with a poor harvest caused by the drought, then lead to malnutrition of the population.

This project thus focuses on rehabilitation of existing water schemes and water supply systems as well as on establishing new water schemes, promoting good hygiene habits, distributing materials for repairs of the houses damaged by fires, distributing food crops, seeds and fertilizers. Last but not least, the project aims at providing trainings introducing best practices in the area of agriculture.
Aid for Areas Afflicted by Drought

Aid for Areas Afflicted by Drought

Due to the climate change which led to longer periods of drought this year, many water sources in the area of East Balassa have dried up. For many people it means spending more time fetching drinking water for their households. When compared with the period before the drought, the average time needed for water collection in the area has doubled, increasing up to 4 hours a day in September.

More strenuous water collection results in the lack of time to focus on other activities (e.g. class attendance of pupils and teachers too is lower than before), as well as reduction in average water consumption, from 15 litres per capita per day to one third of this amount. Due to the lack of hygiene the number of those affected by diarrheal diseases grows; more people are also affected by scabies in this area. The water sources that have not dried up yet are stretched, and first waves of migration in order to reach water occur.

To achieve the first project objective, i.e. improving access to drinking water, the affected areas will be provided with water from tanks, as well as jerry cans, chemicals for water purifications and donkeys. Last but not least, repairs of wells will be carried out. The second project objective, i.e. improvement of hygiene practices and better management of water sources, will be reached through awareness rising on hygiene and sanitation, trainings for water committees and via distribution of soap and medication.
Improvement of Vocational Education in the Field of Water Scheme Management

Improvement of Vocational Education in the Field of Water Scheme Management

The existing system for water scheme technicians at Hawassa Polytechnic College is of limited-quality which negatively affects water scheme management in the area.

The project therefore aims at improving the quality of vocational education at this college, especially the Electro-mechanic course. Renovation and modernization of the classrooms as well as new equipment for training and provided trainings for trainers improve quality of education at the Hawassa Polytechnic College. The project also focuses on experience sharing between the college and the technical staff of the water sector at district/woreda levels.

Next to the inclusion of practical experience into the curriculum, the emphasis is placed on addressing skill gaps of the technicians of water schemes at both the woreda and community levels.
Modernisation of agricultural technologies

Modernisation of agricultural technologies

PIN supports farmers training centres in rural development. A total of eight training centres are now providing farmers with practical experience necessary to their needs and are encouraging private farmers in their focus on quality and modern, yet environmentally friendly, farming technology. These training centres are assisting in management and the promotion of more efficient agriculture and the building of community granaries and mills as well as with the introduction of alternative forms of livelihood through micro loans. PIN believe that these specific system changes will improve agricultural production, on which the majority of rural Ethiopians are totally dependent.
Support of Agricultural Advisory Services

Support of Agricultural Advisory Services

Agricultural advisory services, which bring benefit to both poor farmers as well as those better off, are crucial in terms of improving food security in rural areas of Ethiopia.

Technical support: PIN creates demonstration fields in every farmer training centre. Their purpose is to enable introduction of different types of nutritionally rich crops and demonstration of innovative farming methods. Among other things, farmer centres facilitate experience sharing between training centres and are also used for training of staff to be able to provide advisory services and guidance related to farming. The training also focuses on improving the communication skills of development agents as well as on production and active use of visual teaching materials.

Material equipment: PIN has been constructing facilities (latrines, water tanks, drip irrigation systems, storages) and providing furnishings and equipment (office furniture, educational materials, work equipment, means of transport, agricultural implements and machinery). These steps result in improved working conditions of FTCs and motivation of advisory staff to responsibly fulfil their role in providing support for local farmers.

Management: In order for the agricultural advisory services to be continual, the farmer training centres must be financially sustainable. PIN thus provides training centres with guidance in terms of development of their “business plans”.

The project is to provide support to the poorest farmers. PIN ensures that even the poorest of the community have access to improved training services. These households are also provided with direct support in the form of agricultural inputs and livestock. PIN also establishes informal groups for the most vulnerable women working in agricultural sector, organizes business skills trainings and promotes experience sharing within the group and mutual support in addressing social and economic issues.

In Gedeo and Sidama zones, 36 development agents and 240 model farmers in total received direct support from the project activities while more than 1,000 ordinary farmers benefited from the project indirectly. Direct support from the project implemented in the Alaba district was provided for 20 development agents, 1,200 ordinary farmers and 200 most vulnerable women working in agriculture. The same project indirectly supported 2,828 households with more than 22,000 members.
Support of Apprenticeship in Leather Industry

Support of Apprenticeship in Leather Industry

The development of the leather industry through small traders and small businesses is one of the priority areas of the Ethiopian government. That is the reason why this follow-up project seeks to improve the quality of the courses offered in the leather sector as well as to support small leather businesses to find their place in the market via building and developing cooperation and networking among various stakeholders in the leather sector.

The project is newly focusing on developing a leather education program at Hawassa Polytechnic College. Renovation of the school premises made the program accessible also to people with disabilities in order to increase their chance to find employment. Thanks to the project funds, classrooms of the two educational institutions (Hawassa Polytechnic College and Research Transfer Centre in Hawassa) are equipped with the new machineries to provide quality education complying with Ethiopian standards. The teachers of both institutions can benefit from trainings and experience sharing sessions.

The support of micro and small enterprises aims to enable the entrepreneurs to gain necessary skills and experience and to increase their chances to access a loan offered by local micro financing institutions, for example. Networking between the successful businesses and the educational institutions as well as the micro enterprises is essential as it enables the students and the small entrepreneurs to gain access to materials and placement opportunities.
Education Support for Orphans

Education Support for Orphans

In 2004 People in Need built a Boarding School in Hawassa for orphans aged 14 to 16 years old, whose parents had died from HIV /AIDS. Apart from the standard curriculum and accommodation they are offered practical trainings. The children can choose which course they want to undertake during their two year school apprenticeship. They can choose from variety of courses such as carpentry, joinery, metalwork, sewing, cooking and hospitality services. Thanks to these gained practical skills graduates have a better chance of getting a job and looking after themselves and their younger siblings and simply live a more fulfilling life.
    
The management of this Secondary Boarding School in Hawassa was passed onto the local authorities in June 2006. The accommodation and catering section has been managed by a local based NGO Shiny Day Social Services Association, set up by People in Need.

During 2015-2017 support was given to 40 children a year. Next to the standard curriculum and practical trainings, the children were provided with food, school and hygiene supplies, psychological consultations and health care as well as medication, if needed. The children could also make use of extra tutoring classes, and were regularly invited to take part in various contests to increase their motivation to study. The students themselves took part in organization of various events, e.g. recently organized Talent Show or dance and fashion shows during the graduation celebration. 
Implementation of advanced education methods

Implementation of advanced education methods

PIN has been seeking to modernize and improve primary education in Ethiopia by implementing modern teaching methods and establishing a comprehensive system of monitoring and evaluation of the quality of education. The project implementation is based on PIN´s experience of ten years in the area in Ethiopia and experience in educational programs in the Czech Republic.

In order to ensure sustainable use of the modern teaching methods by teachers, it is crucial they have active support from the school management, inspectors and education offices. In order to reach that, the project team cooperates with the local authorities to create a system for evaluating the quality of education and subsequent school certification “LEAD” which will be incorporated into the school monitoring activities carried out by the education offices.
    
The teachers of the schools involved in the project are provided with trainings on how to apply the modern teaching methods, in which school inspectors are invited to take part. Moreover, the teachers will be supported by school clusters which will supply them with consultation and suitable materials and which will facilitate experience sharing among the teachers and provide information to the community members.
Within the project, the cooperation among colleges of teacher education is also being strengthened, especially in terms of encouraging students to incorporate the modern teaching methods into their practicum.
Construction, Renovation and Schools Equipment

Construction, Renovation and Schools Equipment

In 2004 People in Need presented the Czech public the Build a school campaign in Africa. This initiative responded to the issue of there being very poor conditions in existing schools and a lack of teaching space in general. The initial first year of collection was a great success and from collected funds PIN managed in September 2005 to open the first new school. In the following years of the campaign, the Czech public interest increased steadily. So far a total of 17 schools have been built and more are to be constructed as the Build a school campaign will continue in the future.
    
Through these campaigns PIN is firstly trying to raise public awareness in the Czech Republic about the problems of the developing world.  Secondly, in doing so, PIN aims to actually increase the accessibility of primary education in Ethiopia. In the city of Alaba, PIN built a model school in 2004. In addition to classrooms and administrative buildings, the school consists of a school library and laboratory. This is unlike any public schools, where one class is attended by more than a hundred pupils, whereas in Alaba’s model school, classes are attended by thirty students in one class only. All teachers have undertaken intensive training in modern teaching methods provided by two Czech experts. The training focused on an individual approach to pupil learning instead of the usual over-theorized emphasis on knowledge. The school also provides children with afternoon leisure activities and acts as the center of life to the whole community. After completion of the project, the school was transferred under the jurisdiction of the district office, which currently operates it.
Modernization of the education system

Modernization of the education system

People in Need aims to modernize the Ethiopian educational sector by introducing modern teaching methods and encouraging accreditation of these methods by the Ethiopian Ministry of Education. Furthermore, PIN supports the creation of educational manuals for individual subjects, such as Amharic language, Biology and Social Sciences (Geography and History).
    
People in Need also supports cluster schools, which serve as support centres for the other schools in the area. PIN helps to provide the necessary equipment and teacher training to the cluster schools, such as the implementation of modern teaching methods in the classroom. Higher pedagogical schools are now newly included into the program, so that the modern teaching methods taught will not only be used by the current teachers but also the future ones. Especially for the future generation of teachers; special training modules will be created for each subject. The implementation of modern teaching methods will be strengthened through workshops at regional and federal level.

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